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FSP1-positive fibroblasts: adipogenic niche in adult adipose homeostasis
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A team of researchers at Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SIBCB,CAS), reported August 6 online in PLOS Biology, identified FSP1-positive fibroblasts as adipogenic niche in adult adipose homeostasis.
ZHANG Rui, GAO Yuan, ZHAO Xiaotong, GAO Mei and their colleagues, supervised by Dr. GE Gaoxiang from SIBCB, discovered FSP1-positive fibroblasts are essential to the homeostasis of adipose tissues in adulthood.
White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a passive energy storage, but also an active metabolic and endocrine organ in the body. Adipose tissue excess in obesity and deficiency in lipodystrophy both have adverse metabolic consequences. Adipocytes, derived from the preadipocytes in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), continuously turn over in adults. Such a process, however, is not well understood.
The researchers discovered that fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP1)-positive fibroblasts in SVF are essential to adult adipose homeostasis. FSP1-positive fibroblasts, adjacent to the preadipocytes in the SVF, are negative of preadipocyte markers and devoid of adipogenic potential. Ablation of FSP1-positive fibroblasts or canonical Wnt signaling activation in the FSP1-positive fibroblasts severely diminishes fat content of adipose depots, and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. Alterations in the FSP1-positive fibroblasts result in decreased PDGF expression. PDGF not only maintains preadipocyte pool in the SVF, but also regulates adipogenic potential of preadipocytes by regulating extracellular matrix remodeling in the microenvironment and YAP activation. FSP1-positive fibroblasts are niche for preadipocytes orchestrating the functions of preadipocytes and their microenvironment.

This work, entitled “FSP1-positive fibroblasts are adipogenic niche and regulate adipose homeostasis”, was published online in PLOS Biology on August 6, 2018. It was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Li Yang from the CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology provided tremendous help in the study

Fig. 1. FSP1-positive fibroblasts is an adipogenic niche that maintains preadipocyte pool and adipogenic potential of preadipocytes through PDGF signaling.
(Image by GE Gaoxiang's group)



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